Crew Resource Management

Crew Resource Managment – Course Description

The CRM-course is to train pilots in the effective utilisation of all available resources (e.g. crew members, aeroplane systems, supporting facilities and persons) to achieve safe and efficient operation.

The objective of CRM is to enhance the communication and management skills of the flight crew member concerned. The emphasis is placed on the non-technical aspects of flight crew performance.

Audience: This course is intended for pilots (new, converting, experienced)
Duration: According JAR-OPS 1.943, 1.945, 1.955, 1.965, Section 2, AMC&IEM
The training will be tailored depending on the needs of the operator to cover the topics as indicated below. See also table “Crew Resource Management Trainings” below.
A 3 years recurrent programme can be offered covering all topics.

(A) Human error and reliability

● Human Perception & Learning Process
● Memory fallibility
● Error forms and error types (mistakes and violations), active failures and latent failures
● Error chain,
● Error prevention and detection;
● Means to brake the error chain
● The James Reason Model
­ Organisation (Organisational Deficiencies: latent conditions (Management decisions and organisational processes)
­ Workplace
­ Local conditions (Error producing conditions and violation producing conditions)
­ Person (group/team)
­ Errors and violations
­ Need for defence barriers / Layers of defences (GPWS, ACAS etc)
● The SHELL-model

(B) Company safety culture, SOPs, rganizational factors

● Benefit of SOPs
● Use and function of checklist
­ Checklist definition and purpose
­ How to handle a checklist
­ Missed checklist items
­ Checklist design
­ Checklist technique
­ Challenge and response
­ Limitations to checklist use
­ Checklist and the human factor
I Stress, stress management, fatigue and vigilance
● Sources of stress and stress effects
● Productive / unproductive Work.
● Physical / Personal Problems
● Physiological Stress Factors – External (heat, cold, noise, humidity)
● Physical Stress Factors – Internal (Hunger/Thirst, Fatigue, Lack of Sleep, Pain)
● Cognitive Stressors
● Non Professional Stressors (Domestic Stress, Bereavement)
● Imaginary Stress (Anxiety)

(D) Information acquisition and processing, situation awareness, workload management

● Topics relating to cockpit management:
­ Cockpit Distractions
­ Stress Management
­ Use and Function of Checklists
­ Communicating skills,
­ Workload Assessment and Time Management
­ Decision Making and Judgment
­ Management of Flight Resources
­ Managing People
­ Flight Planning and Progress Monitoring
­ Pattern Recognition
● Recognizing a Loss of SA
­ Failure to Meet Planned Targets
­ Improper Procedures
­ Fixation or Preoccupation
­ Ambiguity
­ Task Fixation
­ Gut Feeling or Confusion
● Systematic of and errors during communication

(E) Decision making

● Decision finding FOR-DEC model
● Workload assessment and time management
● Management of flight resources
● Benefit of group decision making
­ Outdoor and indoor exercises for demonstrating human performance limitation

(F) Communication and coordination inside and outside the cockpit

● Individual Behavior / System Factors
● Different type of humans
● Authority level between captain and copilot
● Conflict resolution

(G) Leadership and team behaviour, synergy

● Motivation
● Managing people
● Personality Awareness
● The Dynamics of Command
● The Dynamics of leadership
● Cockpit Management skills
● Health and Attitude

(H) Automation and philosophy of the use of Automation (if relevant to the type)

● Modern cockpit philosophy
● Balance between overload and complacency

(I) Specific type-related differences

● According aircraft type involved

(J) Case based studies

● Accident / Incident Statistic

(K) Additional areas which warrant extra attention as identified by the accident prevention and flight safety programme (see JAR-OPS 1.037)

● Benefit of non-punitive reporting system

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